Araştırma Makalesi
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Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 18 - 23, 17.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.22391/fppc.1024922

Öz

Introduction: Postpartum depression [PPD] is a disorder that starts during pregnancy or within the first four weeks postpartum with comorbid major depressive symptoms and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for both the mother, and the baby. Depression surveys aimed to identify the at-risk population, during pregnancy and postpartum, may prove to be useful in preventing this disorder, which may have serious consequences. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of PPD symptoms in mothers with babies aged 1-18 months and to investigate the parameters affecting the occurrence of PPD.

Methods: The study was designed as a descriptive, cross-sectional study including 302 mothers with 1-18-month-old babies registered at Firat 12 Family Health Center (FHC) in Buca, Izmir, between 1 November 2020 and 28 February 2021 The study investigated the sociodemographic characteristics of the cases, marital relations, reproductive health, recent birth history, and development of depression as detected using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS).

Results: The mean age of the 302 participants included in the study was 29.49± 5.18 years, where the mean score from the EPDS scale was 6.43± 6.06. As a result of the study, the risk of occurrence of PPD was 14.6%. In the present research, the factors associated with increased risk of PPD included a history of personal and familial psychiatric disorders, poor communication with the partner, partner’s irregular employment status, psychiatric disorders during the previous birth, lack of regular monitoring during pregnancy, and lack of a helper in baby care (p<0.050).

Conclusion: In particular, the practices that may reduce the risk of PPD include regular follow-up of the pregnancies of the women with a personal or familial history of psychiatric disorders or with psychiatric problems during their previous birth, questioning their family relationships during this process, referring them to a psychologist, psychiatrist or family counselor if necessary, and offering postpartum family support to mothers in baby care.

Keywords: Postpartum period, prevalence, depression, risk factors

Kaynakça

  • 1. Committee on Obstetric Practice. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion no. 630. Screening for perinatal depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(5):1268–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aog.0000465192.34779.dc
  • 2. Wisner KL, Sit DK, McShea MC, Rizzo DM, Zoretich RA, Hughes CL, et al. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(5):490–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.87
  • 3. Robertson E, Grace S, Wallington T, et al. Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004;26(4):289–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.006
  • 4. Beck CT. Predictors of postpartum depression: an update. Nurs Res. 2001;50(5):275–85. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200109000-00004
  • 5. Erdogan A, Hocaoglu C. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum depression: a review. MKU J Med. 2020;11(39):31-7. https://doi.org/10.17944/mkutfd.584854
  • 6. Kimmel M, Hess E, Roy PS. Family history, not lack of medication use, is associated with the development of postpartum depression in a high-risk sample. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18(1):113–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-014-0432-9
  • 7. Gaillard A, Le Strat Y, Mandelbrot L, et al. Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Psychiatry Res. 2014;215(2):341–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.003
  • 8. Davanzo R, Copertino M, DeCunto A, et al. Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6(2):89–98. https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2010.0019
  • 9. Learman LA. Screening for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):525-32. https://doi.org/10.1097/grf.0000000000000359
  • 10. Lakkis NA, Mahmassani DM. Screening instruments for depression in primary care: a concise review for clinicians. Postgrad Med. 2015;127(1):99-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2015.992721
  • 11. Chamgurdani FK, Barkin JL, Curry CL, Mirghafourvand M. Comparison of maternal functioning between Iranian mothers and without depressive symptoms: a case-control study. J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(10): 3350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103350
  • 12. Pocan AG, Erden O, Parlakgumus AH, Gereklioglu C, Dolgun AB. The incidence of and risk factors for postpartum depression at an urban maternity clinic in Turkey. Int J Psychiatry Med 2013; 46(2):179-94. https://doi.org/10.2190/pm.46.2.e
  • 13. Yucesoy G, Ozkan S, Yildiz M, Cakiroglu Y, Bodur H. Postpartum depression: Prevalence and contributing risk factors. Turk Clin J Gynecol Obst 2011; 21(1): 6-12. https://www.jcog.com.tr/article/postpartum-depression-prevalence-and-contributing-risk-factors-59648.html
  • 14. Sunay Z, Okyay EK, Gokbulut N, Ucar T. The relationship of postpartum depression with personality traits. Inonu Univ J Vocational School Health Serv. 2021;9(1):219-29. https://doi.org/10.33715/inonusaglik.813014
  • 15. Baser DA. The evaluation of the relationship between postpartum depression and breastfeeding. Ankara Med J. 2018;18(3):276-85. https://doi.org/10.17098/amj.461652
  • 16. Kabakcioglu F. Prevalence of depression, risk factors and social support level in mothers with 0-12 months old babies who applied to Nineteen May University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine Clinic. Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine. 2015. http://libra.omu.edu.tr/tezler/87047.pdf (Accessed March 2, 2022)
  • 17. Mughai S, Azhar Y, Siddiqui W. Postpartum Depression. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519070
  • 18. Beck CT. A meta-analysis of predictors of postpartum depression. Nurs Res. 1996;45(5):297–303. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199609000-00008
  • 19. Faila A, Svancara J, Klanova J, Kasparek T. Sociodemographic and delivery risk factors for developing postpartum depression in a sample of 3233 mothers from the Czech ELSPAC study. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;21;17(1):104. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1261-y
  • 20. World Health Organization. Antenatal care coverage - at least four visits (%). https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/80 (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 21. Xie RH, He G, Koszycki D, et al. Prenatal social support, postnatal social support, and postpartum depression. Annals of epidemiology. 2009;19(9):637-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.03.008
  • 22. Aydin N, Inandi T, Karabulut N. Depression and associated factors among women within their first postnatal year in Erzurum province in eastern Turkey. Women Health 2005;41(2):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1300/j013v41n02_01
  • 23. Gumus AB, Keskin G, Alp N, Ozyar S KA. The prevalence of postpartum depression and associated. Variables. New Symposium J. 2012;50(3):145–54. https://neuropsychiatricinvestigation.org/en/the-prevalence-of-postpartum-depression-and-associated-variables-16798 (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 24. Unterman RR, Posner NA, Williams KN. Postpartum Depressive Disorders: Changing Trends. Birth 1990;17(3):131–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536x.1990.tb00717.x
  • 25. Karacam Z, Kitis Y. The postpartum depression screening scale: Its reliability and validity for the Turkish population. Turk J Psyc. 2008; 19(2): 187-96. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/the-postpartum-depression-screening-scale-toad.pdf (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 26. Ege E, Timur S, Zincir H, Geckil E, Sunar B-Reeder. Social support and symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in Eastern Turkey. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2008; 34 (4): 585–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00718.x
  • 27. Segre LS, O'Hara MW, Arndt S, Stuart S. The prevalence of postpartum depression: the relative significance of three social status indices. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.2007;42(4):316–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0168-1
  • 28. Xie RH, Yang J, Liao S, et al. Prenatal family support, postnatal family support and postpartum depression. Aust New Zealand J Obst Gynaecol. 2010;50(4):340-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-828x.2010.01185.x
  • 29. Honjo K, Kimura T, Baba S, Ikehara S, Kitano N, Sato T, et al. Association between family members and risk of postpartum depression in Japan: Who do they live with" matter? -The Japan environment and children's study. Soc Sci Med 2018; 217:65-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.043
  • 30. Yildirim A, Hacihasanoglu R, Karakurt P. The relationship between postpartum depression and social support and affecting factors. Int J Human Sci. 2011;8(1):31-46 https://www.j-humansciences.com/ojs/index.php/IJHS/article/download/1013/645

Postpartum depresyon belirtilerinin yaygınlığı ve eşlik eden faktörler

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 18 - 23, 17.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.22391/fppc.1024922

Öz

Giriş: Postpartum depresyon [PPD], hamilelik dönemi veya doğumdan sonraki ilk dört hafta içinde başlayan, majör depresif bulgularla seyreden bir hastalık olup, anne ve bebek için mühim bir morbidite ve mortalite sebebidir. Risk altındaki nüfusu belirlemek için, gebelikte ve doğum sonrası dönemde depresyon taramaları yapmak, ciddi sonuçlar doğurabilen bu hastalığı önlemek açısından faydalı olabilir. Bu çalışmada, 1-18 aylık bebeği olan annelerde, PPD belirti sıklığının belirlenmesi ve PPD gelişimini etkileyen parametrelerin incelenmesi amaçlamıştır.

Yöntem: Araştırmamız, 1 Kasım 2020- 28 Şubat 2021 tarihleri arasında, İzmir Buca 12 Nolu Fırat Aile Sağlığı Merkezinde (ASM) kayıtlı, 1-18 aylık bebeği olan 302 anneyi kapsayan, tanımlayıcı, kesitsel tipte bir çalışmadır. Olguların Sosyodemografik özellikleri, evlilik ilişkileri, üreme sağlığı, son doğum öyküsü ve Edinburgh Doğum Sonrası Depresyon Ölçeği (EDSDÖ) ile belirlenen depresyon gelişme durumu incelenmiştir.

Bulgular: Çalışmaya katılan 302 kişinin yaş ortalaması 29,49± 5,18 yıl, EDSDÖ ölçeğinden alınan puan ortalaması 6,43± 6,06 olarak bulundu. Çalışmamız sonucunda, PPD gelişme riski %14,6 oranında bulundu. Araştırmamızda kendisinde ve soy geçmişinde psikiyatrik hastalık öyküsü olmasının, eş ile iletişimin kötü olmasının, eşin düzenli bir işte çalışmıyor oluşunun, önceki doğumda psikiyatrik hastalık varlığının, gebelikte düzenli takip edilmemenin ve bebek bakımına yardım eden birinin bulunmamasının PPD riskini arttırdığı belirlendi (p<0.050).

Sonuç: Özellikle kendisinde, ailesinde veya önceki doğumunda psikiyatrik hastalık öyküsü olan kadınların gebeliklerinin düzenli olarak takip edilmesi, bu süreçte aile ilişkilerinin sorgulanması, gerekliyse psikolog, psikiyatrist ya da aile danışmanına yönlendirilmesi ve bebek bakımı açısından, annelere doğum sonrası aile desteğinin önerilmesi PPD riskini azaltabilecek uygulamalar arasında yer alabilir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Postpartum dönem, prevalans, depresyon, risk faktörleri

Kaynakça

  • 1. Committee on Obstetric Practice. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion no. 630. Screening for perinatal depression. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(5):1268–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.aog.0000465192.34779.dc
  • 2. Wisner KL, Sit DK, McShea MC, Rizzo DM, Zoretich RA, Hughes CL, et al. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(5):490–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.87
  • 3. Robertson E, Grace S, Wallington T, et al. Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004;26(4):289–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.006
  • 4. Beck CT. Predictors of postpartum depression: an update. Nurs Res. 2001;50(5):275–85. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200109000-00004
  • 5. Erdogan A, Hocaoglu C. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum depression: a review. MKU J Med. 2020;11(39):31-7. https://doi.org/10.17944/mkutfd.584854
  • 6. Kimmel M, Hess E, Roy PS. Family history, not lack of medication use, is associated with the development of postpartum depression in a high-risk sample. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015;18(1):113–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-014-0432-9
  • 7. Gaillard A, Le Strat Y, Mandelbrot L, et al. Predictors of postpartum depression: prospective study of 264 women followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Psychiatry Res. 2014;215(2):341–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.003
  • 8. Davanzo R, Copertino M, DeCunto A, et al. Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6(2):89–98. https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2010.0019
  • 9. Learman LA. Screening for depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;61(3):525-32. https://doi.org/10.1097/grf.0000000000000359
  • 10. Lakkis NA, Mahmassani DM. Screening instruments for depression in primary care: a concise review for clinicians. Postgrad Med. 2015;127(1):99-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2015.992721
  • 11. Chamgurdani FK, Barkin JL, Curry CL, Mirghafourvand M. Comparison of maternal functioning between Iranian mothers and without depressive symptoms: a case-control study. J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(10): 3350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103350
  • 12. Pocan AG, Erden O, Parlakgumus AH, Gereklioglu C, Dolgun AB. The incidence of and risk factors for postpartum depression at an urban maternity clinic in Turkey. Int J Psychiatry Med 2013; 46(2):179-94. https://doi.org/10.2190/pm.46.2.e
  • 13. Yucesoy G, Ozkan S, Yildiz M, Cakiroglu Y, Bodur H. Postpartum depression: Prevalence and contributing risk factors. Turk Clin J Gynecol Obst 2011; 21(1): 6-12. https://www.jcog.com.tr/article/postpartum-depression-prevalence-and-contributing-risk-factors-59648.html
  • 14. Sunay Z, Okyay EK, Gokbulut N, Ucar T. The relationship of postpartum depression with personality traits. Inonu Univ J Vocational School Health Serv. 2021;9(1):219-29. https://doi.org/10.33715/inonusaglik.813014
  • 15. Baser DA. The evaluation of the relationship between postpartum depression and breastfeeding. Ankara Med J. 2018;18(3):276-85. https://doi.org/10.17098/amj.461652
  • 16. Kabakcioglu F. Prevalence of depression, risk factors and social support level in mothers with 0-12 months old babies who applied to Nineteen May University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Family Medicine Clinic. Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine. 2015. http://libra.omu.edu.tr/tezler/87047.pdf (Accessed March 2, 2022)
  • 17. Mughai S, Azhar Y, Siddiqui W. Postpartum Depression. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519070
  • 18. Beck CT. A meta-analysis of predictors of postpartum depression. Nurs Res. 1996;45(5):297–303. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199609000-00008
  • 19. Faila A, Svancara J, Klanova J, Kasparek T. Sociodemographic and delivery risk factors for developing postpartum depression in a sample of 3233 mothers from the Czech ELSPAC study. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;21;17(1):104. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1261-y
  • 20. World Health Organization. Antenatal care coverage - at least four visits (%). https://www.who.int/data/gho/indicator-metadata-registry/imr-details/80 (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 21. Xie RH, He G, Koszycki D, et al. Prenatal social support, postnatal social support, and postpartum depression. Annals of epidemiology. 2009;19(9):637-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.03.008
  • 22. Aydin N, Inandi T, Karabulut N. Depression and associated factors among women within their first postnatal year in Erzurum province in eastern Turkey. Women Health 2005;41(2):1–12. https://doi.org/10.1300/j013v41n02_01
  • 23. Gumus AB, Keskin G, Alp N, Ozyar S KA. The prevalence of postpartum depression and associated. Variables. New Symposium J. 2012;50(3):145–54. https://neuropsychiatricinvestigation.org/en/the-prevalence-of-postpartum-depression-and-associated-variables-16798 (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 24. Unterman RR, Posner NA, Williams KN. Postpartum Depressive Disorders: Changing Trends. Birth 1990;17(3):131–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536x.1990.tb00717.x
  • 25. Karacam Z, Kitis Y. The postpartum depression screening scale: Its reliability and validity for the Turkish population. Turk J Psyc. 2008; 19(2): 187-96. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/the-postpartum-depression-screening-scale-toad.pdf (Access Date: 02 March 2022)
  • 26. Ege E, Timur S, Zincir H, Geckil E, Sunar B-Reeder. Social support and symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in Eastern Turkey. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2008; 34 (4): 585–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00718.x
  • 27. Segre LS, O'Hara MW, Arndt S, Stuart S. The prevalence of postpartum depression: the relative significance of three social status indices. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.2007;42(4):316–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0168-1
  • 28. Xie RH, Yang J, Liao S, et al. Prenatal family support, postnatal family support and postpartum depression. Aust New Zealand J Obst Gynaecol. 2010;50(4):340-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-828x.2010.01185.x
  • 29. Honjo K, Kimura T, Baba S, Ikehara S, Kitano N, Sato T, et al. Association between family members and risk of postpartum depression in Japan: Who do they live with" matter? -The Japan environment and children's study. Soc Sci Med 2018; 217:65-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.043
  • 30. Yildirim A, Hacihasanoglu R, Karakurt P. The relationship between postpartum depression and social support and affecting factors. Int J Human Sci. 2011;8(1):31-46 https://www.j-humansciences.com/ojs/index.php/IJHS/article/download/1013/645

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Genel ve Dahili Tıp
Yayınlanma Tarihi Mar 2022
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi (Original Article)
Yazarlar

Gülay PAMUK (Sorumlu Yazar)
Buca No. 12 Firat Family Health Center, Izmir
0000-0003-4806-521X
Türkiye


Yusuf Adnan GÜÇLÜ
Department of Family Medicine, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Izmir
0000-0001-7121-8961
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Mart 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 17 Kasım 2021
Kabul Tarihi 25 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { fppc1024922, journal = {Family Practice and Palliative Care}, issn = {2458-8865}, eissn = {2459-1505}, address = {}, publisher = {Yusuf Haydar ERTEKİN}, year = {2022}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {18 - 23}, doi = {10.22391/fppc.1024922}, title = {Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms}, key = {cite}, author = {Pamuk, Gülay and Güçlü, Yusuf Adnan} }
APA Pamuk, G. & Güçlü, Y. A. (2022). Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms . Family Practice and Palliative Care , 7 (1) , 18-23 . DOI: 10.22391/fppc.1024922
MLA Pamuk, G. , Güçlü, Y. A. "Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms" . Family Practice and Palliative Care 7 (2022 ): 18-23 <http://www.fppc.com.tr/tr/pub/issue/68637/1024922>
Chicago Pamuk, G. , Güçlü, Y. A. "Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms". Family Practice and Palliative Care 7 (2022 ): 18-23
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms AU - Gülay Pamuk , Yusuf Adnan Güçlü Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.22391/fppc.1024922 DO - 10.22391/fppc.1024922 T2 - Family Practice and Palliative Care JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 18 EP - 23 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - 2458-8865-2459-1505 M3 - doi: 10.22391/fppc.1024922 UR - https://doi.org/10.22391/fppc.1024922 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Family Practice and Palliative Care Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms %A Gülay Pamuk , Yusuf Adnan Güçlü %T Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms %D 2022 %J Family Practice and Palliative Care %P 2458-8865-2459-1505 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.22391/fppc.1024922 %U 10.22391/fppc.1024922
ISNAD Pamuk, Gülay , Güçlü, Yusuf Adnan . "Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms". Family Practice and Palliative Care 7 / 1 (Mart 2022): 18-23 . https://doi.org/10.22391/fppc.1024922
AMA Pamuk G. , Güçlü Y. A. Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms. Fam Pract Palliat Care. 2022; 7(1): 18-23.
Vancouver Pamuk G. , Güçlü Y. A. Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms. Family Practice and Palliative Care. 2022; 7(1): 18-23.
IEEE G. Pamuk ve Y. A. Güçlü , "Prevalence and accompanying factors for postpartum depression symptoms", Family Practice and Palliative Care, c. 7, sayı. 1, ss. 18-23, Mar. 2022, doi:10.22391/fppc.1024922

AİLE HEKİMLİĞİ ve PALYATİF BAKIM       ISSN 2458-8865       E-ISSN 2459-1505

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